'Ardrey delivers a bombshell... fascinating stuff'
- Los Angeles Times

'A brilliant piece of detective work... enthralling'
- Scots Magazine


1st May 2016

Why Scotland should be independent and why Scotland should not be independent.

Warner Bros 'King Arthur' trilogy...

... the first film of which will be released in March 2017 will atrract tourists to Tintagel and Glastonbury but not to Scotland unless...


Tintagel has no historical Arthur.

Tintagel is only connected with Arthur because Geoffrey of Monmouth wanted to curry favour with his patron who owned the place and so he wrote about Tintagel it in his Arthur blockbuster, The History of the Kings of Britain.

Check English Heritage’s website – the whole tourist industry of the Tintagel area is based on this fiction.


Glastonbury too has no historical Arthur.

Glastonbury is only connected with Arthur because the monks of Glastonbury needed money to repair their monastery after it burned down in the late 12th century, and so they said they had ‘discovered’ Arthur’s grave. Arthur brought tourists (pilgrims) and tourists brought money.

Check out Glastonbury’s website - Glastonbury's whole tourist industry is based on this scam.


Unlike Tintagel and Glastonbury Scotland has an historical Arthur - Arthur Mac Aedan (c.559-596CE).

But, unlike Tintagel and Glastonbury, Scotland no Arthur-tourist industry. 

If Scotland was populated by Americans, something would have been done by now.

This is why Scotland should be independent and this is also why Scotland should not be independent.

I think we should do something about this. What about you?

20th March 2016

'Merlin' and his sister Languoreth's home village found.

Last week it was reported that roadworks on the M74 had led to the finding of the 'medieval' Cadzow village - on the site of the village where 'Merlin' and his twin-sister Langoureth grew up in the mid-6th century. This find was made smack-bang next to the fort at Cadzow which I identified, in Finding Merlin, as the place where they lived

This ties in with the finding of the 'Round Table' in the shadow of Stirling Castle rock in 2011. (It was actually a round mound about which Arthur and his fellows sat.) I was putting the finishing touches on Finding Arthur when this find was made. 

I made these finds in history. The archaeologists made their finds on the ground.

Arthur & 'Merlin' make sense in Scotland and nowhere else.

12th March 2016

Arthur in history - history based on evidence.

The histories of England and Wales do not include an Arthur who could be the man who inspired the legend. Scottish history does - Arthur Mac Aedan c.559-596CE.

Why is this not generally accepted?

There was a cover-up. (I know, I know, this smacks of 'conspiracy theory' but... well, there was a cover-up. )

The historical Arthur was covered-up and replaced with legend because Arthur was not a Christian. 

A non-Christian hero was not acceptable. The Christianity that was imposed from about c.563 CE onwards brooked no alternatives.

Look at the history of Christianity and tell me that a non-Christian hero would have been acceptable in a Christian world; that Christianity valued pluralism. 

The alternative to Christianity, which Arthur favoured, allowed women a proper, equal place in the world, and so was especially unacceptable.

My conclusions do not rely on the supernatural (that would be daft).

My conclusions rely on evidence from Christian sources. This is the best kind of evidence - evidence contrary to the interests of those who produce it. 

18th January 2016

Cut to the chase - get back to basics.

A few days ago I said that there is too much on this first page and that I had no time to change it - I still don't and so...

...let me cut to the chase.

My name is Ardrey. 

The earliest historical reference to 'Merlin' has him at the battle of Arderydd in 573CE.

The historical Arthur Mac Aedan was at the hillfort Dunardry in 574CE.

Now I will interpret for the daft (the rest of you can skip this bit) - Merlin/Arthur & Arderydd/Dunardry & 573 /574.

Just coincidences? If so they are pretty amazing concidences.

My name is Ardrey and so, in the National Library of Scotland, I looked at books re the name Ardrey.

No one else had looked at these books in this connection - because no one cares about any one else's family history (and quite right too).

I found what no one else had found - Three lines in a book that had been privately printed in Paris in 1768 that made sense of all of the above.

The above connections were not just coincidences.

I went on to find item of evidence after item of evidence until the whole matter of Arthur made sense and Arthur stepped from legend back into history.

What would convince you? You want the stone the sword was taken from? I found it - image in the gallery.

(No magic was involved - I have no time for any form of the supernatural.)

You want... what?





10th January 2016


Argyll can take the initiative from Tintagel and Glastonbury and lay claim to Arthur.


The evidence suggests Arthur was a man of Argyll and that he had nothing to do with any southern locations.

And so - issue a press release to that effect and that is that (and, perhaps, if really minded to push the boat out, something on a website?) 


Now, before Tintagel and Glastonbury take advantage of the first of Warner Bros.' 'King Arthur' trilogy, due for release in July 2016. (This is a follow-up to W.B.'s The Lord of the Rings and Hobbit trilogies). 


Why not? And because this would raise Argyll's tourism profile right across the world.

What's not to like?

The only other thing we need is bit of initiative?

9th January 2016

Too much -  too little

I should tidy up this first page - it has too much stuff in it (but I have too little time to do it).

There is also too little about what this is really about - history.

There was an historical Arthur (Arthur Mac Aedan c. 559-596) and an historical Merlin (Myrddin/Lailoken c.540-618).

Arthur was Scots/British and Merlin British/British: both lived in what is now Scotland. They were both people of the old way of the druids. Consequently, when Christianity took over, attempts were made to write them out of the picture. This didn't work and so they were presented in a Christian light, but this doesn't quite work either. 

Semi-detached from history Arthur and Merlin have become legendary figures. 

However, when the surviving evidence is considered Arthur and Merlin can be seen in a sensible historical / geographical context. 

It is hardly surprising that Arthur has been presented as a Christian-English-King because Christian, English monarchists (i.e. those in charge) wrote the histories. 

But, if you look again at the evidence you will see that all makes sense when the setting is Scotland in the late 6th century CE.

For example, the sword and the stone event really happened (at Dunadd, Argyll, in 574CE) and happened without magic.

My books do not depend on supernatural stuff because... well, that would be daft. 

24th December 2015

Christmas Mistletoe and Arthur & Merlin & Women

Pliny the Elder connected the the people of the old way of the druids and mistletoe.

The Christians tended to be against sex because they were over-engrossed with the supernatural and sex was all too natural for them. 

The people of the old way of the druids were naturally for sex because... well, because it is natural to be for sex.

And so, among Christians, the druid-mistletoe connection gave mistletoe sexual connotations: these still echo in the Christmas tradition of kissing under the mistletoe.

What has this to do with Arthur and Merlin?

One reason Arthur and Merlin are famous is because they were among the last prominent men [sic] standing for the old way of the druids before Christianity took control.

There were women druids too, of course, but they were written out of the picture, mores the pity. Like mistletoe, women connoted sex to Christian men, and so... see above re Christians and the supernatural.

12th December 2015

Society of Antiquaries, Scotland

Last week I was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, Scotland - FSA Scot. This is a body of people interested in history, especially Scottish history.

I look forward to other fellows telling me they think I am wrong when I say that Arthur Mac Aedan was the man who became the legend that is Arthur - and why they think I am wrong.

Perhaps they will think I am right.

In either event I will learn a lot. 

28th November 2015

Glastonbury and Arthur rubbished.

Last week The Times and other newspapers revealed that the Glastonbury-Arthur connection is nonsense - although why anyone though this was 'news' is a mystery. This has been well known for decades.

The monks of Glastonbury wanted money and so they 'discovered' Arthur's body and used it to bring in tourist-pilgrims Duh!

The monks even 'found' a cross upon which were written the words here lies King Arthur &c. (as I said in Finding Arthur - everything but directions to and the opening hours of the gift shop).

Glastonbury is still making millions out of this nonsense.

Scotland, the home of the real historical Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan, does nothing.

I would like them to test the matter of Arthur/Arthur Mac Aedan.

19th November 2015

Arthur & Thomas Paine

I was told that my publishers - Overlook NY USA - are reprinting the paperback of Finding Arthur.

More and more people - people who have considered the evidence in Finding Merlin and Finding Arthur - are coming to the conclusion that the legendary Arthur was the historical Arthur Mac Aedan. 

This conclusion does not involve 'magic' or 'miracles' (which are non-sense) or anything supernatural - just evidence of fact.

The matter of Arthur is, pace Thomas Paine - a world is my country and truth is my religion kind of thing.

14th November 2015

I am a Parisian

Today I am a Parisian.

For freedom of speech and reason.

Against tyranny and superstition.

The matter of Arthur is relevant to what is happening today.

The reasonable people, that is those of us who do not believe in the supernatural, fell behind 1,500 years ago but the race is not yet run.

2nd November 2015

Arthur & JFK

Finding Arthur, the historical Arthur (which I have done - unless you know better), is like finding-out who killed JFK and then finding-out that most people do not know this was ever a puzzle.

The only reason the question - Who was the historical Arthur? - is not a more prominent question is because, for centuries, it has proved to be all but impossible to answer: and so, people have all but given up trying to answer it.

All that has changed - it is now possible to answer the historical-Arthur question.

The historical Arthur was Arthur Mac Aedan - born c.559 died 596CE.

Case closed?

Yup...unless, of course, you know better.


Others before me have considered Arthur Mac Aedan, it would be surprising if they had not; but I found the evidence that proves the case.


24th October 2015

Case Closed (?)

The historical Arthur was Arthur Mac Aedan of Scotland (c.559-596CE).

With reference to the life & times of Arthur Mac Aedan, the twelve Arthur-battles can be indentified and placed in a sensible historical / geographical context; Excalibur can be put in context; Avalon can be identified; 'Merlin' can be identified (as can his sister, Languoreth, and his teacher, Blaise) and much much more.

For all intents and purposes everything makes sense if Arthur was Arthur Mac Aedan - unless you know better.

As for the USA TV documentary in which I fleetingly appeared...

Tintagel? The 'evidence' shown on TV show consisted of one word on one slate ('evidence' that no one takes seriously re Arthur).

Glastonbury? The evidence (and again I use the word evidence loosely) well, not even the TV show people thought this had any substance.

As for the Welsh cave stuff, that was just a Welsh cave with nothing in it (and this bit went on for what seemed to me like forever).

In fainess only about 1 % of my findings were touched upon in the USA TV show and, no doubt the Tintagel/Glastonbury/ Wales people would say the same.

If so, I would be pleased to hear from them.

I would ask them - Do you have an historical Arthur who might have been the historical Arthur?

This is a trick question because there is no possible, potential historical Arthur down south. 

There is up north - Arthur Mac Aedan.

15th October 2015

The TV show about Arthur - Expedition Unknown / Travel Channel - 7th October 2015

If you are in the USA you may have seen me on the above show. It has not been shown in Scotland yet and the TV company still haven't sent me a copy and so, if you would tell me what you thought when you saw it - I would find that interesting.

Don't worry if you think negative things - it is all about opinions.

In my opinion the legends of Arthur were based on the life of Arthur Mac Aedan.

Of course, the evidence says that too and so I am not alone.

7th October 2015

Expedition Unknown - The Travel Channel - Premier Tonight - The One About Arthur

If you saw this and have any comments, let me know.

I will answer every one. 

Warner Bros. trilogy of 'King Arthur' films starts next year, just after, after five hundred years, the historical Arthur has been proven to have been the historical Arthur Mac Aedan.

Unless, of course, you know better.

3rd October 2015

Expedition Unknown – TV Show - The One About Arthur

The Sword and the Stone

The battlefield of Badon


The second series of the American TV show Expedition Unknown kicks off on 7th October with the first showing on USA TV of the one about my findings about Arthur (well, two of my findings anyway).

We filmed this in Argyll in April – with me on a horse for the first time ever.

This show deals with the stone from which an historical Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan, really did take a sword (in 574 CE) and, perhaps, (I haven’t seen it yet) the battlefield of Badon.

For the purposes of identifying the legendary Arthur the most important battle on the Battle-list of Nennius is the legendary Arthur’s battle of Badon.

The battlefield of Badon is smack-bang next to the stone from which Arthur Mac Aedan took a sword in 574CE. The modern place-name Badden (which can be found on Google maps) like the legendary place-name Badon are both corruptions of the personal name Baodan (a relative of Arthur Mac Aedan’s).

It may Expedition Unknown will go with Camelot, a corrupt version of the Gaelic for twisted/crooked marsh, a perfect description of the land smack-bang next to – yup, you’ve guessed it - the stone from which Arthur Mac Aedan took a sword in 574CE.

And two miles away there is… there is lots more – enough for another documentary.

2nd October 2015

Arthur and MacBeth

Inspired by Michael Fassbender's film MacBeth The Independent (today page 39) explains how it came to be that the good Scottish king Macbeth ended up a villain in most people's eyes.

"How did the tale get so twisted? The biggest reason is that history is written by the victors - in this case, the English. They viewed MacBeth through the lens of their own culture, and to top things off, later purged all Scottish literature written in Gaelic. What was finally recorded was heavily influenced by oral tradition and classic Celtic exaggera..., ah, storytelling."

Much the same thing happened to the historical Arthur.

Plus ca change... err...catches the worm (as one of my hometown fellows once said).

16th September 2015

The Stone of Dunadd from which Arthur (Arthur Mac Aedan) really did take a sword (no magic was involved in the making of the sword and the stone legend)

I climbed Dunadd hillfort on Saturday, for the umpteenth time: this time in pouring rain.

On the summit of Dunadd is the footprint into which, in 574CE, Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan, put his foot as part of an inauguration ceremony. He was given a sword to hold, just as the Queen was given a  sword to hold at her coronation. When Arthur Mac Aedan stepped out of the footprint, holding the sword, he literally took a sword from a stone - no magic was involved.

This historical event was later sexed-up until now we have the wonderful fiction that is the story of The Sword in the Stone.

Anyone who knows about the legendary Arthur knows about the battle of Badon - this was fought on land that is contiguous with Dunadd (See Blog 3rd September 2015).

In April, led by an American TV team, I walked south from Dunadd across a marsh to a tussock with some stones on it. When I saw this tussock again on Saturday I thought - This tussock is further from Dunadd than I thought at the time, and at the time I thought it was pretty far. (You try walking across a marsh in the dark and you will see what I mean).  

The next day I wrote to the National Museum of Scotland to find out about the stones we saw on the tussock but... no reply.

3rd September 2015

Johnny came lately and to the wrong place.

There is an article in The Independent today in which someone claims to have discovered that Arthur was a man of Scotand - Duh! I proved this years ago.

The litmus test for the historical Arthur is the battle of Badon.

This someone says that Badon was not fought in the north, like all the other battles, but in the far south, in Wiltshire. Why a Northern Arthur would have marched south to fight a battle in Wiltshire is a mystery. 

However, this someone goes on to say that the litmus-test-battle-of-Badon was "not to do with Arthur at all." Eh?

The fact is Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan was at Dunadd/Dunardry, Argyll, circa 574 - this is not disputed - and the land between Dunadd and Dunardry is still, to this day, called Badden (like Badon a corrupt version of Boadan, the name of Arthur Mac Aedan's distant cousin).

It was on the land of Badden that in circa 588 Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan fought and won the battle of Badon.

Why complicate things?

24 August 2015 

History is Politics - Palmyra

Shocking news today - a temple in Palmyra has been destroyed. Destroy a people’s history and you destroy a people. Palmyra is a part of human history. Its destruction is an assault on all humanity.

It has been ever thus.

Edinburgh fell to the Angles in c. 638 CE. The Britons who lived there fled south as refugees taking with them the stories of the time, in the late 6th century, when, under Arthur and ‘Merlin,' they had been part of an allied army that had defeated the Angles.

The southern Britons had not been so successful - they did not have an Arthur or a 'Merlin' - and so the southern Britons adopted the northern Arthur and ‘Merlin’ as their own.

This is why there is no historically identifiable or geographically sensible Arthur or ‘Merlin’ in the south. In the south the stories are all over the place, because, in the south they are just stories.

In the north, in Scotland - things are different.

19th August 2015

Edinburgh Festival

A few moments ago I was listening to a guide tell festival-goers about the Stone of Destiny (which, there is reason to believe is in Argyll) but not about Arthur's Seat which is just down road, at the end of the Royal Mile.

Arthur's Seat comemorates Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan's victories in the four battle's of the first part of the Great Angle War fought in the 580s. 


30th July 2015

Paperback - Finding Arthur

The paperback edition of Finding Arthur will be out tomorrow.

This contains evidence that proves, on the balance of probabilities, that Arthur was Arthur Mac Aedan.

Och, tae hell wi' it -  it proves it beyond reasonable doubt.

Q - So what?

A - See Whither Academia below.

16th July 2015

Whither Academia? Glasgow Celtic Congress - July 2015

I was eventually allowed to attend the GCC, although, as they said, my request to be allowed to attend "stirred up a hornet's nest."

A professor from Spain claimed to have "discovered" that Arthur was Scottish: eight years after I proved this in Finding Merlin and two years after Finding Arthur nailed it.

He said his talk would “Revolutionise Celtic Studies to the end of time…” and “I give to the people of Scotland the gift of [the historical Arthur].”

Who his Arthur was, he didn't say.

His bull point was that he had, he said, located Arthur's long lost battlefield of Badon.

This, he said (without evidence) was Braydon in the far south of Britain, although, apparently, his Arthur (whoever his Arthur was) had not fought there; which was a bit of a downer

He also said no one had ever been able to explain the name Badon. I pointed out that it was a corrupt version of Baodan, a relative of Arthur Mac Aedan. Duh!

The lands of Baodan/Badon/Badden are there to be seen on Google Maps, Ordnance Survey maps &c. 

They are smack-bang next to where, in 574, Arthur Mac Aedan took part in the ceremony that inspired the fictional sword and the stone episode (see infra).

Whither academia?

7th July 2015

Celebrate Scotland

Yesterday Celebrate Scotland published a piece about my Finding Arthur


There is more evidence that the historical Arthur was Arthur Mac Aedan in this short piece than all the traditional he-was-a-man-of-the-south-of-Britain books have to offer for a southern British Arthur.

What southern British Arthur? There is not one.

It is about time we changed history, is it not?

6th July 2015

Undiscovered Scotland

If you have read Undiscovered Scotland's kind review and have any questions - just ask (or, better still, buy my books).

So, for example:

Was there an Excalibur?

Where was 'Merlin's' so called Magic Spring of Barenton?

How come people think that Arthur was a Christian, English King (when, he was not one of these things)?

Remember, I don't deal in magic, I deal in evidence, fact and history.

The evidence shows that in fact Arthur and 'Merlin' are to be found in history, in late 6th c. Scotland.

Unless, of course, you know better.

No one has so far.

30th June 2015

Undiscovered Scotland - review

A selection from a recent review in Undiscovered Scotland - thank you Undiscovered Scotland - full review on


"... Ardrey demonstrates how all the "facts" we know, or think we know, about Arthur can neatly be slotted into the Scottish landscape. Avalon, Camelot and Arthur's twelve recorded battles can all be shown to have had a Scottish context, as can legends such as the Round Table, Excalibur and The Sword in the Stone. 

If any of this was obvious, then there would have been nothing new or different for Ardrey to write.

As you read the author's account... you know that there will be many historians left unhappy with at least some of the conclusions. But given the problems many of those same historians have had finding convincing candidates for Arthur, what emerges from Ardrey's book has a sense of underlying rightness... we emerged with the strong sense that Adam Ardrey's Arthur comes closer to the real man behind the legend than any other interpretation we've read or seen."

Yup, thanks again Undiscovered Scotland.

30th June 2015

Florence and Edinburgh and Arthur

Just back from Florence where I met the Provost of Edinburgh in the Palazzo Vecchio - all kitted out in full highland dress on a very hot day... the Provost, not me. He did Scotland proud.

The Florentines were celebrating the history of their city with men marching and women dancing, all in 15th c. costumes.

Scotland has a century of history it has still to celebrate - a time commonly called, somewhat vaguely, the Age of Arthur (because, until recently, it has been unidentified). The Age of Arthur was in fact set in history: 6th c. CE Scottish history.

Ever wondered why Arthur's Seat, Edinburgh, is called Arthur's Seat?

18th June 2015

National Library Talk

Full house for my talk at the National Library of Scotland.

Great reception from an informed, and, more to the point, an interested-in-finding-out-more audience.

Met Mr Scott of Crammond Historical Society for the second time. We met for the first time when I was trying to find the real 'Merlin's Well' at Barnton (the magic spring of Barenton, according the magic-legends). I asked him, a random person, for directions, and he took the time to take me to the very place. That's how great people can be.

Another member of the audience kindly told me that she had been researching Arthur/Merlin for forty years and that I had an amazing amount of information and... well, she was going to read the books. 

It was a great day - thanks to the people of the National Library of Scotland and my daughter Kay who worked the Powerpoint and provided support and the best of company.

17th June 2015

After five years of deciding not to decide Argyll Council asked for a business plan - 18 months after this was produced... not a peep: and so I wrote with a SAE (see below).

Now they have said they will discuss my proposal (so that they will have safety in numbers when they say No?).

Costs - next to nothing, press release and link on website.

Publicity-  guaranteed.

Potential - £millions.

And... we will see.

National Library of Scotland today.

11th June 2015

Contra Hocus Pocus

"Mr. Ardrey

I want to thank you for all the work you have done towards your books, Finding Merlin, and Finding Arthur… I started my own quest for a historical basis (as I wanted to leave behind as much of the hocus pocus...as possible) for Merlin and Arthur…Nothing I found really seemed to hold any weight until I found a mention of you on a website referring to Blaise as Merlin's tutor. It all finally seemed to make sense from that point, and I devoured your books…Thank you for… everything you've already done,

J******* Mc****"

10th June 2015

Arthur and the Loch Ness Monster

Five years ago I put it to Argyll Council that the matter of Arthur could boost tourism in Argyll.

This could have worked even if they did not think that the legendary Arthur was the historical Arthur Mac Aedan of Argyll. After all, there is no Loch Ness Monster and tourists still go to Loch Ness to see it.

At one meeting in Argyll I was told, "We have enough history." The implication being - we can't handle or we don't need any more history.

How can you have enough history?

Argyll Council have still not said No to my tourism suggestion. (I think they have decided No but they have not said this to me.) 

Two weeks ago I sent to the Council a stamped addressed envelope with a wee bit of paper in it with a No on it - all they had to do was tick a box and send it back.


And nothing.

6th June 2015

Argyll & National Library of Scotland

Still nothing from Argyll.

I have pussy-footed about the matter of Arthur for too long.

I have produced the evidence and expected people to consider it - Duh!

Almost everyone who has considered the evidence has accepted that Arthur was in fact, in history, a Scot.

The problem is, some people have vested interests:in the settlement the southern Arthur legend promotes; in Christianity; in not thinking about evidence.

Those who accept the traditional view are like religious people who believe in a 'truth' that has been revealed to them by some authorative body - and because it works for them.

The alternative is to go where the evidence leads. 

I have now decided to turn things round.

Next week, at the National Library, I will say Arthur and 'Merlin' were men of Scotland who were later mythologised. 

And if anyone disagrees...

31st May 2015

Brigadoon (Argyll)

I cannot say what the Americans are about to do publicise the fact that the legendary Arthur was Arthur Mac Aedan - not until October 2015.

I can say what my own Scots are doing – nothing.

In 2010 I asked councillors in Argyll if they were interested in using Arthur/Arthur Mac Aedan to promote tourism. 

A simple Yes or No would have been Ok (although an informed, reasoned decision would have been better).

It was as if I had written to the representatives of Brigadoon.

Five years and they still have not said Yes or No.

Even a No, which is what I expect, would do - at least, that would be something. (I have given up hope of an informed/reasoned response.)

Last week I sent a stamped addressed envelope and a piece of paper with Yes and No on it to Argyll Council – all they will have to do is tick a box and send it back to me.

We will see.

It is a Scotsman’s inalienable right to be told, as we say in Scotland, to go and take a run and jump.

28th May 2015

National Library of Scotland

The National Library of Scotland has given me an hour to speak on 17th June.

How do I to get 100 years of 'new' Scottish history across?

That is, history that has been unknown until... well, until Finding Merlin/Finding Arthur.

If I provide too much detail the audience will not see the big picture.

If I provide too little detail the audience may think the evidence is thin.

I could point to the absence of evidence for a southern British Arthur - it does not even include an Arthur.

And then say, now look how the picture changes when Arthur is recognised as Arthur Mac Aedan (c.559-596CE) - then every material question can be answered. 

Camelot? Avalon? Excalibur? 'Merlin'? All twelve Nennius battles?

These and many more questions that are easy to answer, when you look at the right time and to the right place(and when you delete the myth and magic and supernatural/religious stuff).

24th May 2015

Watergate and Arthur and 'Merlin'

The Watergate scandal included dirty-tricks and a cover-up.

So too does the matter of Arthur/'Merlin.'

The history included..., no, includes a way of life in which women and gay men had a real say, indeed an increasing say (no one gave much thought to lesbian women in the 6th c. CE). 

Arthur and 'Merlin' were men of the Old Way of the Druids - as was 'Merlin's' sister, the estimable Languoreth. The Old Way of the Druids was inclusive: it did not think powerful women and openly gay men were anathema.

This is one of the reasons why history that included Arthur and 'Merlin' and the Old Way, was, in effect, re-written and the truth was covered-up.

It has been ever thus - As Orwell (?) said, if you control the past you control the present and the future. 

The above was inspired by yesterday's good news from Ireland - that the Irish people had voted decisively for Gay Marriage.

21st May 2015

I have been too stolid

I think my posts have been too stolid  (probably because most of the people who write about Arthur/Merlin are flighty nutters and I didn't want to end up in the flighty-nutters box).

So - more chatty from now on.

I am looking forward to my talk at the National Library of Scotland on 19th June.

Following past talks, at question-time, some people talk at length, to show off what they know, and never actually ask a question. I will be having none of that.

On one occasion, speaking in Argyll, a local, publically-funded historian, who spoke for an age, eventually concluded with - We have enough history in Argyll.

How can you have enough history?

And we pay for people like this.

PS I almost added an "!" to the end of that last sentence before I remembered only nutters do that.

16th May 2015

Finding Arthur - Arthur has been found in history.

I will be speaking about the historical Arthur at the National Library of Scotland in June 2015.

I will be be talking about the fact that all the supernatural stuff in the legend of Arthur (magical swords and stones &c.) is only there because the facts of the matter of Arthur weighed and indeed still weigh against the interests of the Christian Church.

The facts of the matter of Arthur also weighed against the interests of those who had political power in days gone by, and weigh against the interests of those who have political power today.

Poor old Arthur (Mac Aedan): he was up against the Church and the State, what chance did he have?

There was a real sword (the sword that came to be called Excalibur) and a real stone (the stone on the summit of Dunadd) and indeed a real Arthur (Arthur Mac Aedan c.559-596CE). 

Avalon (Iona); Badon (Baodan/Badden); Merlin (Lailoken); Blaise (Cathen the druid) &c. &c. &c. are all explicable when the supernatural is deleted and the facts of the matter of Arthur are objectively considered. 

For too long the history that gave rise to the legend of Arthur has been deliberately covered-up.

If anyone disagrees - let me know.  

Finding Arthur - Paperback UK - 6th May 2015

The paperback of Finding Arthur, which is presently available in the USA (and online), will be published in the UK at the end of July 2015.

National Library of Scotland - 21st April 2015

I will be speaking at the National Library of Scotland on the matter of Arthur/'Merlin' in June 2015 - see NLS website (events). Remember, no magic is involved, just history.

W.B. 7th April 2015


Finding Arthur was something that was bound to happen, because the evidence has always been there to be found. 

It just happened to be me that found the evidence, realised what it meant and wrote a book about it.

Just as, if Darwin had not found evidence for Natural Selection, realised what it meant and written a book about it, someone else would have done it.

These things were bound to happen.

Nothing is more powerful that an idea whose time has come (Victor Hugo).

7th April 2015


People are flocking to Scotland to see locations where the fictional Outlander was filmed. This show has come and it will soon go.

Arthur and Merlin are immortal in the public consciousness.

In Scotland the locations where the actual historical events that inspired the legends of Arthur and Merlin are still there to be seen.

The very stone from which Arthur really did take a sword, for example.

There is an image of this stone in this website's Gallery.

17th February 2015

The Scots Magazine - March 2015

"Adam Ardrey... gives the Scots a world-famous hero they never knew they had" says David McLaughlan in his review of Finding Arthur. I am grateful to him for his many kind words.

No one who has read my books has said that I am wrong about Arthur being a man of Scotland, specifically Arthur Mac Aedan.

Many people (none of whom have read my books) have said I cannot be right, just cannot. 

I have challenged people to read Finding Merlin and Finding Arthur and, if they think I am wrong, to say I am wrong and why.

I will give them a fair hearing on this website.

The review in The Scots Magazine, March 2015, is on the NEWS page of this website.

31st January 2015

To a tour guide

If I were a tour guide taking visitors about the Kilmartin Glen, Argyll, I would tell them that in 574CE the real Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan, the man who gave rise to the legend of ‘King Arthur’, really did take a sword from a stone at Dunadd hillfort.

Arthur Mac Aedan put his foot into the footprint cut into the stone on Dunadd’s summit and, when he stepped out of the footprint, holding a sword, he really did take a sword from a stone.

This was the historical event that gave rise to the wonderful story of the sword and the stone. No magic was involved.

I would then suggest they searched on-line for ‘King Arthur Badon’. When they found that Badon was one of the legendary Arthur’s most famous battles, I would point out that the land south of Dunadd, north of Dunardry, is still to this day called Badden (originally Baodan).

I would then point to Dunardry, the great hill that looms over the Crinan Canal, and suggest they search on-line for ‘Merlin Arderydd.’ When they found that ‘Merlin’ fought at Arderydd in 573CE, one year before Arthur took a sword from a stone, I would ask them if they thought all this was just a coincidence.

Then I would wait and see if anyone was interested.

Who in the world would not be interested in the fact that one of the most famous stories ever told was in fact founded on Scottish history.

PS The legendary Arthur was said to have been buried on an island set in the western sea. Arthur Mac Aedan was buried in Oran’s Graveyard, Iona, an island set in the western sea.

There is more, much more. 

Berwick; Borders; Edinburgh (Arthur's Seat); Falkirk; Stirling; Perth; Glasgow; Loch Lomond (Ben Arthur); Oban; Kilkerran and more, much more.

The English and the Welsh and the French all make much of spurious Arthur/Merlin connnections but they do not have history on their side. 

Now, following the publication of Finding Merlin and Finding Arthur, we in Scotland have history on our side.

Who wants to be on the right side of history? 

29th January 2015

Arthur - man of the south or north?

Arthur was not a Christian, English, king. 

Arthur was not just a legend.

He was an historical figure. 

The problem England and Wales have is that they do not have an historical Arthur.

Scotland does not have this problem. Scotland has Arthur Mac Aedan.

Arthur Mac Aedan (c559-596) lived at the same time as a man called Merlin (c.540-618).

The legends make sense in the history and geography of Scotland - no magic is needed.

See Finding Merlin and Finding Arthur.

Warner Bros. & 'King' Arthur

Warner Bros. is about to make a series of Arthur films set… when and where?

I don’t know.

It may be they will set these films in the right time and place, the 6th century of Arthur Mac Aedan, or, as is usually the case, in no particular time, in no particular place, and with no particular Arthur.

Go with the facts? Go with the legend?

Why not go with both?

Because the status quo is comfy (albeit, the status quo will soon be redundant).

Now, if Warner Bros. could say, for the first time ever, based on a true story...

Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times says, ‘There’s enormous irony [in Finding Merlin] in saying that the two key figures in a bedrock English tradition are Scotsmen.’

That is not quite what I say – I say, in both Finding Merlin and Finding Arthur, that while Arthur, Arthur Mac Aedan, was a Scot, the man called Merlin was a Briton.

Still, I can’t complain because the Los Angeles Times goes on to say that I apply ‘as rigorous an exegesis as you might find in John Meier’s scholarship on the historical Jesus…[and] what emerges… is a fascinating picture of the British Isles after the Romans.’


Click on an image to see it enlarged.

Audio Book of Finding Merlin - Audible Books UK 2013.


The only image of an Arthurian battle-site (Bassas) is now in the Gallery. 

Photographs of Camlann (Arthur's last battle) and Avalon are now in the Gallery. (Click on them to see them big.) 


The legendary Arthur is commonly presented as a Christian English King when, in reality, he was an historical figure, a man of the old way of the druids, a Scot and a warlord. Merlin too lived in history: he was the pre-eminent druid of the 6th century. Unlike Arthur, Merlin was too closely associated with the old ways of the druids to be Christianised and so he was 'made safe': he has been presented him as an old, avuncular, somewhat scatter-brained figure.

Merlin’s twin-sister, the equally important Gwyneth, known as Languoreth (The Golden One), the Lioness of Damnonia and the Swan-necked Woman, was all but written out of history, simply because she was a woman. Typical!

For 1,500 years the Christian Church and its temporal partners-in-power deleted historical evidence and fabricated a legend that, literally, suited their book.

There is an alternative.

In the film The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962) it was said, "When the legend becomes fact, print the legend."

The alternative is to print both.

-About the author

No one cares about anyone else’s family history (and quite right too): and so it was that when I was researching my family name, Ardrey, I looked where no one else had looked and found what no one else had found.

I already knew that the earliest reference to Merlin had him at the battle of Arderydd, fought on the Scotland-England border in 573CE, and that the very next year the historical figure Arthur Mac Aedan was based at the hillfort of Dunardry [sic] in Argyll.

Adam Ardrey is an advocate living in Glasgow, Scotland with his wife and three children. Finding Merlin is his first book.


Latest images

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30th March 2016

Name: D****
Email Address: l*****@aol.com

Message: ...I read your book Finding Arthur and loved it.

Thank you.


7th March 2016

Name: S****
Email Address: s****12*1@gmail.com
Message: I live in Finland. I bought a book called Finding Merlin - the truth behind the legend. And I read it. It was well written and it told so much details about that legend.

13th December 2015

Both my brother and I were excited to hear that you have been working on a follow up to Finding Arthur... Both my brother and myself look at the books you have written (and assume what you have still to publish) as being of value to Scottish history and standing in the world...
Saor Alba!

27th November 2015


Hello Adam:

My contacting you... is... [because] over the summer...[I had an] argument/debate I had with my brother over the some of the contents of Finding Arthur. We had both recently re-read Finding Arthur and had taken 2 different reactions to it.  My reaction was to your chapter concerning Camelot while my brother was intrigued by your closing chapter re the meaning and roots of Aryan and the mention of the runes on the island in the Baltic...Cheers and hope to hear from you soon.

P**** K****

(Questions asked and answered.)

24th November 2015

Name: M***** C**** C*******

Email Address: ***@m******campbell.com
Message: Dear Mr Ardrey, your book finding is very interesting...I spent many months on the Isle of Iona...During one summer trip I stayed for six weeks in the abbey and slept in a 8 ft square monks cell... Your book has given some interesting ideas regarding Arthur, Iona, and the Campbell's. I would be very interested to read what you know of the Druids of Iona...
Regards M******

California, USA

AA Full answers to several questions were provided.

3rd November 2015

From: R***** B**** [t****_*i@hotmail.com]
Sent: 03 November 2015 14:32
To: Adam Ardrey
Subject: query


As I was reading (for the 3rd time) Finding Arthur ...I find it interesting that there seems to be more people believing in a Scottish Arthur.

I would like you to know that I have been a real fan of yours since first picking up Finding Merlin.  I really like your logic; the lawyer/judge really shows through.  You had mentioned a Finding Camelot, any progress on that?

B** B****

[AA - This email came with a query - this query has been answered.]

29th October 2015


Another potential tourist




“I thought you had the most convincing argument on the [Expedition Unknown USA TV] show and it was interesting to see the area, especially the "camelot"… How far is the area that Arthur and Merlin inhabited from Cowal? [This question has been answered.]… If you were coming to Scotland and could design a sightseeing trip in the areas around Port Patrick and Cowal, where would you go and what would you see?... Lots of questions, any answers appreciated. [All questions answered.]



23rd October 2015 

Name: J****
Email Address: j****s******@gmail.com
Message: Hi Adam, 
I am a Scot living in the USA and I caught you on Expedition Unknown last night up Dunadd Fort with Josh Gates. 
I very much enjoyed hearing your opinions on the history... [Dunadd is] a very special place! 
I am very interested to read your books! 
All the best, 

2nd April 2015

From: USA p******_t*******@verizon.net


I cannot say how wondrously accurate Finding Arthur is… [this writer kindly said, I had done] great service in connecting everything together.


t April 2015

Name: K**** D**

Email Address:USA  k**9***@gmail.com
Message: I really enjoyed your book, Finding Arthur, it opened so much truth and history that has been missing to us for all these years. I also liked how in many of your conclusion you applied Occam's Razor, and it makes so much sense. Great research and thank you for uncovering the truth.

16th March 2015

From: A***** G**** f*******@idnet.com

Sent: 16 March 2015 16:55

Subject: Finding Arthur

Dear Adam Ardrey,

... I am reading your very interesting book...

16th March 2015

Name: c**** g******
Email Address: c******g******@mac.com
Message: Mr. Ardrey, I very much liked both Finding Merlin and Finding Arthur. Wikipedia has a lot of entries that need updating! Maybe that could be your next project.

(I wrote back to CG and said I did not know how to add to Wiki. but that it was a good idea.)

23rd February 2015

Name: K***** Y********

Email Address: k**********@juno.com
Message: Big fan of both your books. I've been intrigued by Arthur, Merlin and Grail legends for decades....
Thanks, again.


17th February 2015 (from Germany)


... your book helps to spread out the information on an Arthur from Scotland. The evidence is so proof that there is not any doubt about it...


11th February 2015

From - G****** S******* (from Brazil)

...I read your book finding merlin, and I'm sure : [it] is the best on the subject. I am a big fan of merlin and arthur among others, and I'm eager to see the films and arthur books to come.


10th February 2015

From I*** G*******

Cheers Adam!

I must say that I find your case for Arthur MacAedan compelling. I have quietly assumed that Arthur was Gododdin. But I find your proposed Cat Celydon confederates with Arthur as leader very logical. And of course your route to Tribuit takes us neatly to the old ramparts of Roxburgh which has many rumours of Arthur whistling about it! It would make aq great day tour from Edinburgh!


8th February 2015 


Hello Adam

I have just come across your site. How fascinating...


7th November 2014

Name: Ashley
Email Address: a*********@*****.com
Message: Hello Mr. Ardrey!
I have been reading your Finding Arthur, and have found it amazing! I enjoy many of the arguments you bring up. I have a huge interest in history, and must admit to a mild obsession with King Arthur... I agree that Arthur Mac Aedan was very probably the historical Arthur, but I do have a few questions about a few of your theories... 

[These questions were asked and answered.]

10th October 2014


Dear Adam

I have just been reading Finding Arthur, having been recommended to do so by P****** T*******, seanacchie for M*******.  S******* are connected to Clan M*******, with footsteps accordingly back to Dunardry, Dunnadd, and Ireland.

Finding Arthur has been an amazing learning experience for me, for the history, the stripping aside of the agendas and propaganda of early writers (while finding and pursuing the kernel of any contained truth), and also for your rigorous analytical skills in doing so.


 A magnificent read as well.,,


24th August 2014

Adam, finished "Finding Arthur", very, very good! Loved it. 

C**** A*****

30th June 2014


I just finished reading Finding Merlin yesterday and the day before, I ordered Finding Arthur which arrived last night. I just finished it tonight - couldn't put it down. Both of them are absolutely wonderful and very well worked out. An enormous amount of detective work and dedication.

I can see you are not enamored with the church and it's methods past and probably present and neither am I. So, I'd just like to say well done for speaking your mind on that front.

Can I ask one question? [this Q was asked and answered].

We should take a leaf out of the Church method of working and now flood the market with books about the Scottish Arthur! Only this time they will be factual.

Thanks very much for an excellent read.

Kind regards

R***** M*******


13th May 2014

Name: J***** K P***
Email Address: j*****kp***@gmail.com
Message: Hello, my name is J***** and I am very interested in your books and your research. I too am a Merlin seeker and scholar though my interests are a bit more magical that yours are I think :) I'm planning a UK pilgrimage for 2015 that should eventually turn into a book about my spiritual journey in the path of Merlin and I have added a lot of sites to visit that I hadn't know previously thanks to your book and blogs...
Thanks and keep up the good work!
J***** K P***
San Francisco, CA


29th April 2014


I finished the book last week. I really enjoyed it and thought that your arguments were very well presented and followed a logic that would be difficult to argue with. I have recommended the book to some of my Irish colleagues who have an interest in Irish history.



8th April 2014

Name: r** d*****
Email Address: r********00@gmail.com
Message: just read "finding arthur" - now need to locate a copy of "finding merlin" - fine job of grounding the arthuriad in the people and places of the times. "arthur" and "aneirin" being use names/nicknamesmakes perfect sense...

11th April 2014

C***** C****** S******

I am writing regarding the book, Finding Merlin. My 14 year old daughter recently checked the book out from our local library. She loves the book but found that the title is misspelled on the slipcover/spine. 
When she's done with this book she's going back for Arthur. 

[On the cover of the USA Edn. Merlin is spelled 'Merln' - a glitch got us - such is life. Adam Ardrey]

7th April 2014

D**** H*******

I'm finishing up Finding Arthur and I wanted to tell you that I love it. Re: literary triplets (269), this is a common occurrence in Native American tale telling and I suspect probably quite common in most oral traditions. Repeating important items three times is a way to effectively teach the listener.



24th February 2014

L**** on For Argyll (On-line news)

From someone who had read Finding Arthur -

"...all references to battles, place names, Iona and especially to Merlin, make such sense. It all seems obvious. I am now a firm believer that the real Arthur lived and fought in Argyll (as well as other areas in Scotland)..." 

Audio Book

22nd October 2014

From Italy

Name: G******

Email Address: g******.g******@libero.it
Message: Hi, I'm really interested in your books... above all in "Finding Merlin". But I'm afraid my English is not good enough to understand everything. So, here is my question: do you know if your books will be translated into Italian? Thanks, best regards, G******

I replied to G****** 22nd October 2014.

21st September 2014

From - j*****d*******@hotmail.com

Dear Adam,

...I have seen your excellent website, and looked at your books…amazing! Very well researched and presented! I wish you all the best in your work…a Scottish King Arthur! Well done!

Very best wishes 

J***** M. E**** D*******

29th January 2014


I was so pleased by your prompt... reply to my e-mail!... it is a rare rainy day here in southwest Florida... my husband and I have traveled to Glasgow, Edinburgh and the border country of Scotland several times over the years on pheasant "shoots" and love the country and the people.  J** was saying just last evening that we should travel back to Scotland and see a different part of the country (Argyll and the Highlands?)... J***

28th January 2014

D**** T*****

Email Address: dt******@yahoo.com
Message: I bought and read the new US edition of this book on the advice of our clan (MacTavish) association... I... did find a compelling and well-researched case for the historic basis of a real-life... Merlin of late sixth century Glasgow, and ample evidence that the real Arthur was a Manau Scot and not from southern England as the authors of conventional retellings of the legends would have it.
A masterful historical detective job, cutting through centuries of political and religious propaganda to unveil the truth behind the myths.
A must-read for Arthur, Merlin and Camelot buffs. 

24th January 2014

G*** W*****

"This was brilliant: "... the Old Way engendered individuality, and so disputation, both of which are good for humanity and bad for those in charge". I loved this book and am fortunate to have travelled to many of the Arthurian places in Scotland described in it."

3rd January 2014

Dear Mr. Ardrey,

I read Finding Merlin last year and have just finished Finding Arthur. Rather, I should say that I listened to them as I am blind and I rely on my Kindle Text to Speech facility. It struggles a bit with Celtic names but I was able to follow most of your arguments. I have long believed that any historical figure behind the Arthur legends was probably based in Scotland and I am delighted that your efforts have produced a viable candidate. I must say that your overall arguments have persuaded me that you are probably correct. I must congratulate you on such a difficult and well –argued investigation...

2nd January 2014

Name: E S******

Email Address: e******_s******@hotmail.com
Message: Reading your book at the moment very interesting. Take a look at assessment online concerning Knappers farm at Drumry near Clydebank. Excavated in 1937 and thought to be the miniature Stonehenge in wood, unfortunately the war stopped work and then it was destroyed by the building of the A82 road. Some of the items found are in Hunterian Museum.

2nd January 2014

Name: T** McG*****
Hi Adam. Got your latest book for Christmas and still in the midst of reading it. I have always been a bit 50/50 about Arthur MacAedan but I find finding Arthur very convincing. Your highlighting of Arthur being airbrushed out of history then rebranded for the Christian establishment really hits the mark and we can see modern parallels in the way the right wing establishments in the UK and USA constantly discredit and attack anything they see as being left wing through misinformation and downright subterfuge. Just shows, things don't change much. The template of Arthur's world is now starting to fit into its proper location thanks to the work of writers like yourself who are who are hacking through 1500 years of establishment b******. I must check out Dunardey next time I am up in Knapdale. 
Thoroughly enjoying your book. T**.

6th December 2013

... I totally believe in your hypothesis that MacAyden [sic] is truly the basis for the Arthurian Legand...Adam you won again...Keep writing man...
Happy Holidays.
California, USA.

24th November 2013

If you haven't gotten and read "Finding Arthur" you're missing out on one of the great detective stories of the times!

C****** S*****

Arizona, USA

22nd November 2013

Got the book yesterday and I am reading in my spare time...can't put it down. David Carroll sold me on a Scottish Arthur....and your book is right along those lines. Thank you for the hard work and research!

J**** R*******

22nd November 2013
Hello Adam;
...Just wanted to let you know that I just received 2 copies of the new book and can't wait to start reading.
I bought the second book to mail to  my brother who is as interested in this subject as I have become. It was my brother who introduced me to this topic by sending me a copy of the Merlin book. So we will have come full circle!
...I believe we need to get the message out that Scots history is not as basic as many believe, and I might even go so far as to state, our history was probably stolen from us...
... I will email you again when I have finished the book. I have a feeling I might have a couple of questions or observations.
... I am especially fascinated by the revelation of you having been able to pinpoint the locations of the 12 battles. If this is correct I think it could potentially change everything for Scotland and our history.


P**** K****

21st November 2013

Hi Adam
…I greatly enjoy reading history books... Your first book really interested me as I fish on the… water between Drumelzier and Dawyk and had never realised until reading your first book that any of the references to Merlin in the area had any veracity. The key thing in your books for me is the encouragement to get out there and have a look for yourself… your books have got me… looking at the landscapes differently.  My kids also love your books and we were recently on top of the Meldon Hills questioning why we have so little information on these places... your books are important as they provide a very different perspective to the hum drum stuff that's regurgitated in most books...  I also think that people should own up to where their perspectives come from - so again your writing is very clear on the different ways that people have tried to create a fixed story to meet their own ends. The exciting thing is that you have opened up so many different avenues - some of your arguments are more convincing than others but this is as it should be…

J*** D****



Finding Merlin

Finding Merlin is now available to buy online and in bookshops.

To purchase on Amazon click the link below.

Finding Arthur

Finding Arthur is now available to buy online and in bookshops.

To purchase on Amazon click the link below.

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